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    April 12, 2018 2:24 AM EDT
    The four great inventions refer to the compass Authentic Braden Holtby Jersey , gunpowder, printing techniques and also papermaking. The statement was first put forward by British sinologist Dr Joseph Needham (1900-1995), which was later widely accepted by Chinese historians. Ancient China's four great inventions extremely promoted the development of China's economy, politics and culture, which were introduced to the Western states through various channels and had a substantial impact on world civilization.

    Papermaking

    The earliest form of Chinese characters were inscriptions on oracle bones of the Shang Dynasty, followed by inscriptions on ancient bronze objects, and it was not until the Spring and Autumn Dynasty that the Chinese characters were carved onto bamboo slips strung up by hemp cords.

    The Chinese characters were written on silk fabrics during the Qin and the Han dynasties, and it was not until Cai Lun's (61-121) improved papermaking method in the Eastern Han Dynasty that paper was widely used throughout early China. Papermaking was a great occasion in the history of human civilization, also it had been introduced into European nations 1 Authentic Andre Burakovsky Jersey ,000 years later.

    Gunpowder

    Gunpowder, a mixture of sulfur, saltpeter and charcoal, was invented by ancient Chinese alchemists during the method of alchemy and the Tang dynasties, plus this is a very volatile explosive. The primeval fire arrow resembles the rocket tube in shape that is present, and was widely found in battles on water.
    The gunpowder was enormously applied through the Tang and Song dynasties in the wars; it was introduced to the Arabian states to the European countries and then from the Mongolians.

    Compass

    The legend went that Huangdi (the celebrated forebear of the Chinese nation) conquered the Chiyou tribe with the aid of a southward-pointing cart, a type of mechanical device for showing directions. To the basis of the southward-pointing handcart, a compass was invented by the Chinese people and later employed it to wars and sea explorations.

    Great progress was made in compass-making in the Song Dynasty, when it greatly stimulated the development of the shipping industry. Later Authentic Philipp Grubauer Jersey , the Arabians and Persians learned to make compasses from the primeval Chinese and introduced them to the European nations.

    Printing Techniques

    Prior to the development of a printing technique, scholars transcribed books. Although a rubbing technique plus a block printing technique came forth in the Han Dynasty and the Western Jin Dynasty, it was still time consuming to print a book.

    Bi Sheng (970 1051) first invented movable type printing in the Song Dynasty, greatly encouraging the growth of the printing technique, for which he was praised as the dad of typography.

    The printing technique that is Chinese is a vanguard of human culture, which the Arabians introduced to the European states, also it creates favorable conditions for knowledge dissemination on the planet.

    WASHINGTON, Oct. 11 (Xinhua) -- Being born by Caesarian section may increase the risk of obesity in mice, a new study said Wednesday.

     

    That's probably because the procedure changes a body's microbiome Authentic Christian Djoos Jersey , the set of bacterial species living in the human gut, according to the study published online in the U.S. journal Science Advances.

     

    While C-section is a life-saving practice -- needed in 10 to 15 percent of births to avoid risking the life of mother or child -- this delivery mode is often overused, with some regions using C-sections in more than 40 percent of births.

     

    Concurrent with an increase in C-section births, obesity and immune-related diseases including type 1 diabetes, allergies and celiac disease are also on the rise.

     

    What's more, preventive antibiotics, which are used in C-sections, have also been related to increased risk of these modern diseases.

     

    To further investigate the impacts of C-sections on weight gain and gut microbiota during early development, Maria Dominguez-Bell at New York University and her colleagues compared 34 mice delivered by C-section with 35 control mice born vaginally.

     

    The researchers followed body weight and used genomic techniques to analyze intestinal bacterial DNA from newborn pups through development and into adulthood.

     

    They found mice born by Caesarian section gained on average 33 percent more weight in the 15 weeks after weaning than mice born vaginally Authentic Devante Smith-Pelly Jersey , with females gaining 70 percent more weight.

     

    Along with higher weight, mice born by C section had significant differences in bacterial species in their guts when compared to those born vaginally, and regardless of gender.

     

    The microbiome structure of mice born vaginally matured normally over the course of the study, but in mice delivered by C-section, microbiome structure matured too soon initially, but then became relatively immature later in life.

     

    "Our study is the first to demonstrate a causal relationship between C-section and increased body weight in mammals," said Dominguez-Bello.

     

    The current study indicated that microbiota transmitted from mothers to vaginally born pups provided protection against weight gain.

     

    Bacterial groups found to dominate in pups delivered vaginally, including Bacteroides, Ruminococaceae Authentic Madison Bowey Jersey , and Clostridiales, had been previously linked to leaner body type in mice, according to the researchers.